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Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. By repeating this process of diffusion weighting in susumk directions, a three-dimensional diffusion model the tensor can be estimated. Studying connections in the living human brain with diffusion MRI.
An introduction to diffusion tensor image analysis
The application of the Euler and Runge-Kutta methods to white matter tractography was explored in [ 5253 ]. The measured diffusion effects are averaged over a voxel three-dimensional pixelcomplicating the biophysical interpretation of the introductjon tensor [ 8384 ]. They describe whether the shape of diffusion is like a cigar linearpancake planaror sphere spherical. Structure-specific statistical mapping of white matter tracts using the continuous medial representation.
Predicting human resting-state functional connectivity from structural connectivity. These issues may cause false positive and false negative connections.
Anisotropic diffusion can indicate the underlying tissue orientation Figure 1. Non-invasive mapping of connections between human thalamus and cortex using diffusion imaging. Proceedings of the 10th international conference on Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention-Volume Part I; Springer-Verlag; Together, the eigenvectors and eigenvalues define an ellipsoid that represents an isosurface of Gaussian diffusion probability: For reviews of tractography techniques including explanations of common tractography artifacts and a comparison of methods see [ 5051 ].
A review of diffusion tensor imaging studies in schizophrenia. The word tractography refers to any method for estimating the trajectories of the fiber tracts in the white matter. The Journal of chemical physics.
Introduction to Diffusion Tensor Imaging – Susumu Mori – Google Books
These measures are interpreted as diffusivity parallel to and perpendicular to a white matter fiber tract, so they make the most sense in regions of coherently oriented axons with no fiber crossings. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Contributor Information Lauren J. To enhance visualization of the white matter and suppress information outside of it, the brightness of the color is usually controlled by tensor anisotropy FA. Six diffusion-weighted images the minimum number required for tensor calculation.
Quantity Measurement Reference axon packing density pyramidal tract Error! Mapping brain anatomical connectivity using white matter tractography.
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The most common approach is streamline tractography Figure 6 [ 52535455 ], which is closely related to an earlier method for visualization of tensor fields known as hyperstreamlines [ 56 ]. Unlike the diffusion 1 in a glass of pure water, which would be the same in all directions isotropicthe diffusion measured in tissue varies with direction is anisotropic.
The tensor model is only able to represent one major fiber direction in a voxel, thus DTI tractography can be confounded by regions of crossing fibers, as demonstrated schematically in Figure 7. Employment diffussion multiple pairs of diffusion gradients double pulsed field gradient diffusion MRI has been shown to increase sensitivity to small size scales [ 9495 ]. Tract-based morphometry for white matter group analysis.
The major eigenvector may not be aligned with a fiber tract in the case of crossing fibers. Clinical evaluation and follow-up outcome of diffusion tensor imaging-based functional neuronavigation: Corresponding author Lauren J.
Finally, DTI is often viewed by estimating the course of white matter tracts through the brain via a process called tractography. Many methods have been proposed for tractography, and the results will vary enormously depending on the chosen method. Principles of Neural Science. Automated methods for atlas-based tractography segmentation, that use prior knowledge to select trajectories, have also been developed [ 63606465666768 imaing. The publisher’s final edited version of this article is available at Neurosurg Clin N Am.
On the left an axial image plane, showing the average diffusion-weighted image with semi-transparent color overlay indicating the major eigenvector orientation, and a white square indicating the zoomed-in area right image. A unified framework for clustering and quantitative analysis of white matter fiber tracts. New diffusion models, scanning paradigms, and analysis methods are continually being developed for diffusion MRI.